It comes just a week after it was found that material with depictions of females ejaculating during orgasm are now Refused Classification and Australian Customs directed to confiscate it.
The Offensive Publications Act was New Zealand's first censorship legislation Customs was regulating the importation of indecent material into New Zealand as early asbut the first censorship legislation was not enacted until The Offensive Publications Act banned any picture or printed or written matter which was of an indecent, immoral, or obscene nature, which included advertisements relating to such matters as venereal disease.
The Act laid down the criteria that magistrates should take into account when determining the indecency of material. This Act was replaced by the Police Offences Act in After two years this system of censoring publications was again revised.
The first film exhibition in New Zealand It incorporated provisions from previous acts, and strengthened the law allowing the searching of premises and the seizure of 'indecent' and 'obscene' material.
All offences involving indecent material were made liable to summary conviction, eliminating the need for expensive jury trials.
The Act did not attempt to define 'indecent', but did lay down criteria which 'magistrates sic should take into account when determining the indecency of material. The Act deemed indecent ' It was a defence, however, that the work was of 'literary, scientific, or artistic merit or importance', and that the act of the accused was not of 'an immoral or A discussion on pornography and censorship tendency'.
The Act thus spelt out for the first time the distinction between work which was of 'literary, scientific, or artistic, merit' and that which was not.
The purpose, according to the Attorney General, John Findlay, was to protect the 'liberty which improves and ennobles a nation' while removing the 'license which degrades. From March the Government had the power to ban films about the war in Europe Regulations were introduced during WWI, 'aimed at films which might discourage army recruitment by showing the conditions under which the war was being fought.
The screening of such a film in Timaru, which included shots of the dead and wounded, appears to have provoked the move. The first Censor of Cinematograph Films was appointed under the Cinematograph Film Censorship Act The Cinematograph Film Censorship Actpassed in August, made it illegal to show any film which had not first been approved by a government-appointed censor.
Virtually the only directive given the censor was that no film should be approved which 'in the opinion of the censor, depicts any matter that is against public order and decency, or the exhibition of which for any other reason is, in the opinion of the censor, undesirable in the public interest'.
The words 'in the opinion of the censor' imparted sweeping discretionary powers. Film distributors were, however, given the right to appeal the censor's decision to a three-person board appointed by the Minister of Internal Affairs. Untilno one could appeal the censor's approval of a film, however.
The words 'undesirable in the public interest' were also rather sweeping, going beyond the concern with 'indecency' in the other censorship legislation.
When questioned in the house about this clause, the Minister of Internal Affairs indicated it was specifically included so films could be censored for political reasons, in particular their effect on army recruitment. The Act also made provision for films to be restricted to specified classes of persons.
This provision was rarely used before the 's, when age restrictions, such as R16, became common. A system of graded age recommendations was introduced The Act also made provision for films to be restricted to specified classes of persons.
This provision was rarely used before the s, when age restrictions, such as R16, became common. In however, a system of recommendary classifications was introduced. A 'U' certificate denoted that a film was suitable for everyone, while an 'A' classification indicated that a film was considered by the censor to be suitable for adults only.
It was left to parents to police the censor's recommendations. The introduction of sound in movies Films became more sophisticated with the arrival of sound, and were thus aimed at a more mature audience.
Ina record films 3. The introduction of the voluntary Hays Code in the American industry in seems to have made films from that country more acceptable to the censor, and bannings were rare by the end of the decade.
Committee of Inquiry into the Motion Picture Industry In New Zealand in a Committee of Inquiry into the Motion Picture Industry, after considering various submissions and evidence on 'the effect of films on juveniles', came down in favour of the status quo.
Its report concluded that 'the censorship of films is at present carried out in a very satisfactory manner', and that it was up to 'parental control' to observe the certificates issued by the censor.
Comics banned under the new import licensing regulations Comic books were initially reprints of newspaper comic strips. During the s, these became orientated more towards action, violence, romance and adventure with the likes of Buck Rogers becoming popular.
Action and violence became more predominant fromwhen comic books started to feature original material, thus removing the restrictions imposed by the family orientation of most newspapers. Superheroes such as Batman and Superman appeared on the sceneCanada. In August , the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) called for public discussion on what role - if any - it should have in regulating matters such as online pornography, hate speech, and "Canadian content" on the Web.
Nadine Strossen’s “Defending Pornography”, a lucid and entertaining polemic which by all rights should leave no one floundering in the swamp of censorship politics, argues compellingly that the Mac- Dworkinite road to censorship is a . Dec 19, · Browse Pornography censorship news, research and analysis from The Conversation.
Oct 01, · History of censorship in New Zealand. The history of censorship in New Zealand starts early in the 20th Century and involves several different .
Nov 19, · ADDIS ABABA, Ethiopia (Reuters)―A new report by Freedom House shows that internet freedom around the world declined in for the sixth consecutive year, given two thirds of all internet users live in countries where criticism of government, military, or ruling family are subjective to censorship..
The report titled “Freedom on the Net ”, stressed that with more governments than. Anti-censorship page The purpose of this page is first, to link to things that censors have tried to ban, and more generally to show how the Internet can be used to render such bans impotent.