Top 5 Essays on Earthquakes Geography Article shared by: An earthquake is a major demonstration of the power of the tectonic forces caused by endogenetic thermal conditions of the interior of the earth.
The generally accepted notion is that it was a purely sanskritised Hindu language at first that took significant influence from invading Persian empires.
The basis in general for the introduction of Persian into the subcontinent was set, from its earliest days, by various Persianised Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties.
The term Hindustani Persian: The more highly Persianised version later established as a language of the court was called Rekhtaor "mixed".
As an emerging common dialect, Hindustani absorbed large numbers of Persian, Arabic, and Turkic words, and as Mughal conquests grew it spread as a lingua franca across much of northern India.
Written in the Persian alphabet or Devanagari it remained the primary lingua franca of northern India for the next four centuries although it varied significantly in vocabulary depending on the local language and achieved the status of a literary language, alongside Persian, in Muslim courts.
Its development was centred on the poets of the Mughal courts of cities in Uttar Pradesh such as Delhi, Lucknowand Agra.
John Fletcher Hurst in his book published in mentioned that the Hindustani or camp language of the Mughal Empire 's courts at Delhi was not regarded by philologists as distinct language but only as a dialect of Hindi with admixture of Persian. Next to English it was the official language of British Rajwas commonly written in Arabic or Persian characters, and was spoken by approximately , people.
They developed it as the language of administration of British India further preparing it to be the official language of modern India and Pakistan. However, with independence, use of the word 'Hindustani' declined, being largely replaced by 'Hindi' and 'Urdu', or 'Hindi-Urdu' when either of those was too specific.
More recently, the word 'Hindustani' has been used for the colloquial language of Bollywood films, which are popular in both India and Pakistan and which cannot be unambiguously identified as either Hindi or Urdu.
Hindi—Urdu controversy and Register sociolinguistics Although, at the spoken level, Hindi and Urdu are considered registers of a single language, they differ vastly in literary and formal vocabulary ; where literary Hindi draws heavily on Sanskrit and to a lesser extent Prakritliterary Urdu draws heavily on Persian and Arabic.
The grammar and base vocabulary most pronouns, verbs, adpositions, etc. The standardised registers Hindi and Urdu are collectively known as Hindi-Urdu. Hindustani is perhaps the lingua franca of the north and west of the Indian subcontinentthough it is understood fairly well in other regions also, especially in the urban areas.
This can be seen in the popular culture of Bollywood or, more generally, the vernacular of North Indians and Pakistanis, which generally employs a lexicon common to both Hindi and Urdu speakers.
Minor subtleties in region will also affect the 'brand' of Hindustani, sometimes pushing the Hindustani closer to Urdu or to Hindi.
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One might reasonably assume that the Hindustani spoken in LucknowUttar Pradesh known for its usage of Urdu and Varanasi a holy city for Hindus and thus using highly Sanskritised Hindi is somewhat different. Modern Standard Hindi[ edit ] Main article: Hindi Standard Hindi, one of the official languages of Indiais based on the Kharibol dialect of the Delhi region and differs from Urdu in that it is usually written in the indigenous Devanagari of India and exhibits less Persian and Arabic influence than Urdu.
It has a literature of years, with prose, poetry, religion and philosophy, under the Bahmani Kings and onwards. It is prevalent all over the Deccan Plateau. Note that the term Hindustani has generally fallen out of common usage in modern India, except to refer to "Indian" as a nationality  and a style of Indian classical music prevalent in northern India.
The term used to refer to it is Hindi or Urdu, depending on the religion of the speaker, and regardless of the mix of Persian or Sanskrit words used by the speaker. One could conceive of a wide spectrum of dialects and registers, with the highly Persianised Urdu at one end of the spectrum and a heavily Sanskrit-based dialect, spoken in the region around Varanasiat the other end.
In common usage in India, the term Hindi includes all these dialects except those at the Urdu spectrum. Thus, the different meanings of the word Hindi include, among others: Modern Standard Urdu[ edit ] Main article: Urdu Urdu is the national language of Pakistan and an officially recognised regional language of India.
Urdu is the official language of all Pakistani provinces and is taught in all schools as a compulsory subject up to the 12th grade. Bazaar Hindustani[ edit ] In a specific sense, Hindustani may be used to refer to the dialects and varieties used in common speech, in contrast with the standardised Hindi and Urdu.
This meaning is reflected in the use of the term bazaar Hindustani, in other words, the "language of the street or the marketplace", as opposed to the perceived refinement of formal Hindi, Urdu, or even Sanskrit. Names[ edit ] Amir Khusro ca. During this period, Hindustani was used by Sufis in promulgating their message across the Indian subcontinent.
Rekhta 'mixture' and Hindi 'Indian'  became popular names for the same language until the 18th century. Griersonin his highly influential Linguistic Survey of Indiaproposed that the names Hindustani, Urdu, and Hindi be separated in use for different varieties of the Hindustani language, rather than as the overlapping synonyms they frequently were:Feb 15, · Hindi: How to Improve Your Essays October 18, October 18, A few weeks back, one of our readers who blogs at Abstract Thoughts and Eccentricities was kind enough to leave a few tips regarding how to improve one’s Hindi essays.
These Essays are written in very simple and easy language using very easy words. These are easily understandable by any student.
Such essays may help and motivate students to know about the Indian cultures, heritages, monuments, famous places, importance of teachers, mothers, animals, traditional festivals, events, occasions, famous personalities, legends, social issues and so many other topics.
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The winning essays of the first student paper competition organized by the World Bank in partnership with the University of Indonesia focus on the critical issues in tax collection. Computer education in schools plays important role in students career development.
Computer with the internet is the most powerful device that students can use to learn new skills and more advanced version of current lessons. An essay has been defined in a variety of ways. One definition is a "prose composition with a focused subject of discussion" or a "long, systematic discourse".
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