Cognitive scientists often say that the mind is the software of the brain. This chapter is about what this claim means. The last part of the section will discuss the relation between the mental and the biological. This approach has been popular among thinkers who fear that acknowledging mental states that do not reduce to behavior would make psychology unscientific, because unreduced mental states are not intersubjectively accessible in the manner of the entities of the hard sciences.
Stop reading now, and ponder the table of energies. Concentrate on the last column. Look for the numbers that are surprising. How many can you find? My answers are Hydrogen cars essays. I think all of the following are surprises: Even most physics majors will be surprised.
These surprises and some other features of the table are worthy of much further discussion. They will play an important role in our energy future.
When TNT is exploded, the forces push the atoms apart at very high speeds. One of the biggest surprises in the energy table is that chocolate chip cookies CCCs have eight times the energy as the same weight of TNT.
How can that be true? That includes most physics majors. What makes TNT so useful for destructive purposes is that it can release its energy transfer its energy into heat very, very quickly. The heat is so great that the TNT becomes a gas that expands so suddenly that it pushes and shatters surrounding objects.
A typical time for 1 gram of TNT to release all of its energy is about one millionth of a second. Such a sudden release of energy can break strong material. Power is the rate of energy release. Even though chocolate chip cookies contain more energy than a similar weight of TNT, the energy is normally released more slowly, through a series of chemical processes that we call metabolism.
This requires several chemical changes that occur during digestion, such as the mixing of food with acid in the stomach and with enzymes in the intestines.
Finally, the digested food reacts with oxygen taken in by the lungs and stored in red blood cells. In contrast, TNT contains all the molecules it needs to explode; it needs no mixing, and as soon as part of it starts to explode, that triggers the rest.
If you want to destroy a building, you can do it with TNT. Or you could hire a group of teenagers, give them sledgehammers, and feed them cookies. Since the energy in chocolate chip cookies exceeds that in an equal weight of TNT, each gram of chocolate chip cookies will ultimately do more destruction than would each gram of TNT.
Note that we have cheated a little bit. If we were to include the weight of the air, the energy per gram would be lower, about 2. The surprisingly high energy of gasoline As the energy table shows, gasoline contains significantly more energy per gram than cookies, butter, alcohol or coal.
This fact will be important when we consider alternatives to gasoline for automobiles. Gasoline releases its energy turns it into heat by combining with oxygen, so it must be well mixed with air to explode. In an automobile, this is done by a special device known as a fuel injector; older cars use something called a carburetor.
The explosion takes place in a cylindrical cavity known, appropriately, as the cylinder. The energy released from the explosion pushes a piston down the axis of the cylinder, and that is what drives the wheels of the car.
The muffler on a car has the job of making sure that the sound from the explosion is muffled, and not too bothersome. Some people like to remove the muffler--especially some motorcyclists--so that the full explosion is heard; this can give the illusion of much greater power.
Removing the muffler also lowers the pressure just outside the engine, so that the power to the wheels is actually increased, although not by very much. The high energy per gram in gasoline is the fundamental physics reason why it is so popular.The Mind as the Software of the Brain.
Ned Block New York University. 1. Machine Intelligence. 2. Intelligence and Intentionality. 3. Functionalism and the Language of Thought. 4. . Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional academic writers.
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Essay about Hydrogen - Fuel of the Future. power of change. Hydrogen fuel is that change for the automobiles of the future. Hydrogen has been used for decades, but mostly for commercial use.
Each year, we get closer to removing the oil company’s choke hold on our wallets. Several hydrogen cars are now in existence, but most of them are concept cars. These eco-friendly driving machines include the Chevrolet Equinox, the BMW h and the one that's currently available for lease in California, the Honda FCX.
Ford piloted a project with the State of Florida last year with 30 hydrogen-fueled cars. Hydrogen can also be used to heat homes where heating oil, electricity and natural gas are traditionally used.
A compact hydrogen fuel cell from a vehicle in the future could generate more energy than the car needs/5(2). Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Impacting More Than Just Cars Essay 22 February Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Impacting More Than Just Cars Gas prices continue to increase and current alternatives are either ineffective or more costly; however, hydrogen fuel cells, when used in vehicles, have the potential to replace gasoline as a fuel source.