Introduction[ edit ] The traditional definition of a community is of geographically circumscribed entity neighborhoods, villages, etc.
The Nature of Assessment For many years, a transmission view of knowledge, curriculum, and assessment dominated and appeared to satisfy our social, political, and economic needs.
The corollary assessment question was, What counts as evidence that the knowledge really is in their heads? In a transmission view, it made sense to develop educational standards that specified the content of instruction before developing assessment procedures and engagements. In the s, notions of the basic purposes of schooling began to shift from an emphasis on the transmission of knowledge to the more complex nurturing of independent and collaborative learning and of problem solving.
A curriculum committed to independent learning is built on the premise that inquiry, rather than mere transmission of knowledge, is the basis of teaching and learning. This shift from knowledge transmission to inquiry as a primary goal of schools has important implications for assessment.
Policymakers, including school board members, trustees, or regents, are the primary recipients of assessment data. An inquiry framework changes the role of assessment and the roles of the participants.
Within this framework, assessment is the exploration of how the educational environment and the participants in the educational community support the process of students as they learn to become independent and collaborative thinkers and problem solvers. This exploration includes an examination of the environment for teaching and learning, the processes and products of learning, and the degree to which all participants—students, teachers, administrators, parents, and board members—meet their obligation to support inquiry.
Such assessments examine not only learning over time but also the contexts of learning. Inquiry emphasizes different processes and types of knowledge than does knowledge transmission.
For example, it values the ability to recognize problems and to generate multiple and diverse perspectives in trying to solve them.
An inquiry stance asserts that while knowledge and language are likely to change over time, the need for learners at all levels students, teachers, parents, administrators, and policymakers who can solve new problems, generate new knowledge, and invent new language practices will remain constant.
An inquiry perspective promotes problem posing and problem solving as goals for all participants in the educational community. For example, inquiry values the question of how information from different sources can be used to solve a particular problem.
It values explorations of how teachers can promote critical thinking for all students. And it raises the question of why our society privileges the knowledge and cultural heritage of some groups over others within current school settings. Inquiry fits the needs of a multicultural society in which it is essential to value and find strength in cultural diversity.
It also honors the commitment to raising questions and generating multiple solutions. Various stakeholders and cultural groups provide different answers and new perspectives on problems. Respecting difference among learners enriches the curriculum and reduces the likelihood of problematic curricular narrowing.
Just as the principle of inquiry values difference, so the principle of difference values conversation over recitation as the primary mode of discourse. In a conversation, all of the stakeholders in the educational environment students, parents, teachers, specialists, administrators, and policymakers have a voice at the table as curriculum, standards, and assessments are negotiated.
Neither inquiry nor learning is viewed as the exclusive domain of students and teachers; both are primary concerns for all members of the school community. For example, administrators ask themselves hard questions about whether the structures they have established support staff development, teacher reflection, and student learning.
School board members ask themselves whether they have lived up to the standards they have set for themselves and their schools to provide teachers and students with the resources they need to guarantee learning opportunities.
Quality assessment, then, hinges on the process of setting up conditions so that the classroom, the school, and the community become centers of inquiry where students, teachers, and other members of the school community investigate their own learning, both individually and collaboratively.
The onus of assessment does not fall disproportionately upon students and teachers which is often the case in schools today ; instead, all those inquiring into the nature and effectiveness of educational practices are responsible for investigating the roles they have played.
Different members of the school community have different but interacting interests, roles, and responsibilities, and assessment is the medium that allows all to explore what they have learned and whether they have met their responsibilities to the school community.
The Nature of Language Language is very much like a living organism. It cannot be put together from parts like a machine, and it is constantly changing. Like a living organism, it exists only in interaction with others, in a social interdependence.
Language is a system of signs through and within which we represent and make sense of the world and of ourselves. Language does not contain meaning; rather, meaning is constructed in the social relationships within which language is used.
Individuals make sense of language within their social relationships, their personal histories, and their collective memory. In order to make sense of even a single word, people take into account the situation and their relationship with the speaker or writer. Take, for example, family, a word often used as if all members of society agree on its meaning.Best professional online essay writer company is at your service.
We help students write academic essays and papers from scratch in just a few clicks, offering perfect quality and . Diigo is a powerful research tool and a knowledge-sharing community. Related Research on Web This is a list of Webcentric articles/books that use Social Network Sites as central to the discussion.
Beer, David and Roger Burrows. Introduction. Online social media have gained astounding worldwide growth and popularity which has led to attracting attention from variety of researchers globally.
Although with time all generations have come to embrace the changes social network has brought about, teenagers and young adults are the most fanatic users of these sites. The workforce is changing as businesses become global and technology erodes geographical and physical ashio-midori.com organizations are critical to enabling this transition and can utilize next-generation tools and strategies to provide world-class support regardless of location, platform or device.
Social Networking Outline Introduction Merits and Demerits of Social Networking through Friends-Based Web Sites Merits Demerits Conclusion Introduction The pervasive nature of the Internet has added a new dimension in the manner in which people interact and communicate with others.