When Jennie was two, her mother, Sarah, died whilst giving birth to her ninth child. As a result, Addams formed a significant bond with her father, John, who was a successful mill owner and politician. John Addams corresponded with Lincoln, and Jane Addams associated her father and Lincoln as moral icons and personal inspirations throughout her life. The relationship between John and his daughter was important because it afforded Jane the attention of an educated and worldly adult, an opportunity not experienced by many young women of this era.
Definition[ edit ] Pacifism covers a spectrum of views, including the belief that international disputes can and should be peacefully resolved, calls for the abolition of the institutions of the military and war, opposition to any organization of society through governmental force anarchist or libertarian pacifismrejection of the use of physical violence to obtain political, economic or social goals, the obliteration of force, and opposition to violence under any circumstance, even defence of self and others.
Historians of pacifism Peter Brock and Thomas Paul Socknat define pacifism "in the sense generally accepted in English-speaking areas" as "an unconditional rejection of all forms of warfare".
A pacifist rejects war and believes there Political pacifism essay no moral grounds which can justify resorting to war. War, for the pacifist, is always wrong. Principled pacifism holds that at some point along the spectrum from war to interpersonal physical violence, such violence becomes morally wrong.
Pragmatic pacifism holds that the costs of war and interpersonal violence are so substantial that better ways of resolving disputes must be found.
Pacifists generally reject theories of Just War. Some however, support physical violence for emergency defence of self or others. Others support destruction of property in such emergencies or for conducting symbolic acts of resistance like pouring red paint to represent blood on the outside of military recruiting offices or entering air force bases and hammering on military aircraft.
Not all nonviolent resistance sometimes also called civil resistance is based on a fundamental rejection of all violence in all circumstances. Many leaders and participants in such movements, while recognizing the importance of using non-violent methods in particular circumstances, have not been absolute pacifists.
Sometimes, as with the civil rights movement's march from Selma to Montgomery inthey have called for armed protection. The interconnections between civil resistance and factors of force are numerous and complex. The principle is described as difficult to abide by consistently, due to violence not being available as a tool to aid a person who is being harmed or killed.
It is further claimed that such a pacifist could logically argue that violence leads to more undesirable results than non-violence.
China[ edit ] During the Warring States periodthe pacifist Mohist School opposed aggressive war between the feudal states. They took this belief into action by using their famed defensive strategies to defend smaller states from invasion from larger states, hoping to dissuade feudal lords from costly warfare.
The Seven Military Classics of ancient China view warfare negatively, and as a last resort. For example, the Three Strategies of Huang Shigong says: The Morioriof the Chatham Islandspracticed pacifism by order of their ancestor Nunuku-whenua.
This enabled the Moriori to preserve what limited resources they had in their harsh climate, avoiding waste through warfare.
A Moriori survivor recalled: It was of no avail; we were discovered and killed - men, women and children indiscriminately. No philosophical program of rejecting violence between states, or rejecting all forms of violence, seems to have existed.
Aristophanes, in his play Lysistratacreates the scenario of an Athenian woman's anti-war sex strike during the Peloponnesian War of — BC, and the play has gained an international reputation for its anti-war message.
Nevertheless, it is both fictional and comical, and though it offers a pragmatic opposition to the destructiveness of war, its message seems to stem from frustration with the existing conflict then in its twentieth year rather than from a philosophical position against violence or war.
Equally fictional is the nonviolent protest of Hegetorides of Thasos. Euripides also expressed strong anti-war ideas in his work, especially The Trojan Women.
He was killed for refusing to be conscripted. Christian pacifism Throughout history many have understood Jesus of Nazareth to have been a pacifist,  drawing on his Sermon on the Mount.
In the sermon Jesus stated that one should "not resist an evildoer" and promoted his turn the other cheek philosophy. Love your enemies, do good to those who hate you, bless those who curse you, pray for those who abuse you.
There are those, however, who deny that Jesus was a pacifist  and state that Jesus never said not to fight,  citing examples from the New Testament.
One such instance portrays an angry Jesus driving dishonest market traders from the temple. And the one who has no sword must sell his cloak and buy one.
Yes, what is written about me is reaching its fulfillment. This treaty was never violated. Beginning in the 16th century, the Protestant Reformation gave rise to a variety of new Christian sects, including the historic peace churches.
The humanist writer Desiderius Erasmus was one of the most outspoken pacifists of the Renaissancearguing strongly against warfare in his essays The Praise of Folly and The Complaint of Peace They stated their beliefs in a declaration to King Charles II: The Spirit of Christ The English Quaker William Pennwho founded the Province of Pennsylvaniaemployed an anti-militarist public policy.
Unlike residents of many of the colonies, Quakers chose to trade peacefully with the Indians, including for land.Bertrand Russell's political views Jump to navigation Jump to search. This article is written like a personal reflection or opinion essay that states a Wikipedia editor's personal feelings about a topic.
In Russell called his stance towards warfare "relative political pacifism"—he held that war was always a great evil.
Political influences. Since the European Renaissance, Western concepts of pacifism have been developed with varying degrees of political influence.A great deal of pacifist thought in the 17th and 18th centuries was based on the idea that a transfer of political power from the sovereigns to the people was a crucial step toward world peace, since wars were .
In founding philosophical anarchism, William Godwin developed what many consider the first expression of modern anarchist thought. According to Peter Kropotkin, Godwin was "the first to formulate the political and economical conceptions of anarchism, even though he did not give that name to the ideas developed in his work".
Philosophical anarchism contends that the state lacks moral legitimacy. In the autumn of , the philosopher Martin Heidegger began to record his thoughts in small diaries that he called the schwarze Hefte, or “black notebooks.” Their name describes their black oilcloth covering, but one could be forgiven for thinking it described their content.
They will cast a dark shadow over Heidegger’s legacy. George Michael, a political scientist at the University of Virginia-Wise, has written an academic article summarizing my writing on Judaism.
Paul Kingsnorth is a writer and poet living in Cumbria, England. He is the author of several books, including the poetry collection Kidland and his fictional debut The Wake, winner of the Gordon Burn Prize and the Bookseller Book of the Year Award.
Kingsnorth is the cofounder and director of the Dark Mountain Project, a network of writers, artists, and thinkers.