Overview[ edit ] In general, psychodynamics is the study of the interrelationship of various parts of the mindpersonalityor psyche as they relate to mental, emotional, or motivational forces especially at the unconscious level. Freud proposed that psychological energy was constant hence, emotional changes consisted only in displacements and that it tended to rest point attractor through discharge catharsis. At the heart of psychological processes, according to Freud, is the ego, which he envisions as battling with three forces: The ego serves as the general manager of personality, making decisions regarding the pleasures that will be pursued at the id's demand, the person's safety requirements, and the moral dictates of the superego that will be followed.
Saul McLeodupdated There are various approaches in contemporary psychology. An approach is a perspective i. There may be several different theories within an approach, but they all share these common assumptions. You may wonder why there are so many different psychology perspectives and whether one approach is correct and others wrong.
Most psychologists would agree that no one perspective is correct, although in the past, in the early days of psychology, the behaviorist would have said their perspective was the only truly scientific one.
Each perspective has its strengths and weaknesses, and brings something different to our understanding of human behavior. For this reason, it is important that psychology does have different perspectives on the understanding and study of human and animal behavior.
Below is a summary of the six main psychological approaches sometimes called perspectives in psychology. Behaviorism is different from most other approaches because they view people and animals as controlled by their environment and specifically that we are the result of what we have learned from our environment.
Behaviorism is concerned with how environmental factors called stimuli affect observable behavior called the response. The behaviorist approach proposes two main processes whereby people learn from their environment: Classical conditioning involves learning by association, and operant conditioning involves learning from the consequences of behavior.
Though looking into natural reflexes and neutral stimuli he managed to condition dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell through repeated associated with the sound of the bell and food. The principles of CC have been applied in many therapies. These include systematic desensitization for phobias step-by-step exposed to a feared stimulus at once and aversion therapy.
Skinner investigated operant conditioning of voluntary and involuntary behavior. Therefore behavior occurs for a reason, and the three main behavior shaping techniques are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment.
Behaviorism also believes in scientific methodology e. Behaviorism rejects the idea that people have free will, and believes that the environment determines all behavior.
Behaviorism is the scientific study of observable behavior working on the basis that behavior can be reduced to learned S-R Stimulus-Response units. Behaviorism has been criticized in the way it under-estimates the complexity of human behavior. Many studies used animals which are hard to generalize to humans, and it cannot explain, for example, the speed in which we pick up language.
There must be biological factors involved. Freud believes that events in our childhood can have a significant impact on our behavior as adults. He also believed that people have little free will to make choices in life.
Instead, our behavior is determined by the unconscious mind and childhood experiences. It is the original psychodynamic theory and inspired psychologists such as Jung and Erikson to develop their own psychodynamic theories.
Freud, the founder of psychoanalysisexplained the human mind as like an iceberg, with only a small amount of it being visible, that is our observable behavior, but it is the unconscious, submerged mind that has the most, underlying influence on our behavior.
Freud used three main methods of accessing the unconscious mind: He believed that the unconscious mind consisted of three components: If this conflict is not resolved, we tend to use defense mechanisms to reduce our anxiety. Psychoanalysis attempts to help patients resolve their inner conflicts.
It shows how early experiences affect adult personality. Stimulation of different areas of the body is important as the child progresses through the important developmental stages.
Too much or too little can have bad consequences later.The psychodynamic approach to psychology does not use the usual scientific routes of explanation, instead it focuses on the individual's thoughts on experiences, how they see the world and their relationships. Psychologist Sigmund Freud is considered to be the founder of the psychodynamic approach.
The psychodynamic approach includes all the theories in psychology that see human functioning based upon the interaction of drives and forces within the person, particularly unconscious, and between the different structures of the personality.
His therapeutic technique of unveiling the psychological forces that influence human personality and functioning came to be known as the psychodynamic approach in psychology.
An approach to treatment that features psychological and psychiatric factors when examining unconscious motives in the molding of personality, attitudes and emotional ashio-midori.com approach puts more emphasis on affect than cognition and favors clinical treatments that can be used to infer solutions.
The approach attempts to trace behavior to its origin(s) in contrast the a systematic approach. Today this approach is known as cognitive psychology. in Psychology Approaches to Psychology Summary Tables A-level Psychology Approaches Revision Notes Behaviorism Psychodynamic Approach Humanistic Approach Cognitive Psychology Biological Approach.
Related Articles. We will also explore the psychodynamic approach and consider its implications for modern psychology. In Depth Psychodynamic Approach How Freud's theories of the human psyche seek to explain the influence of our subconscious.