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Research ethics involve requirements on daily work, the protection of dignity of subjects and the publication of the information in the research. However, when nurses participate in research they have to cope with three value systems; society; nursing and science which may be in conflict with the values of subjects, communities, and societies and create tensions and dilemmas in nursing.
Using the Medline and the Nursing Cinahl data base, the most important ethical issues which appear in bibliography, will be addressed. After a short description of the nature of nursing, and the advocacy role of nurses, the writer will attempt to highlight the possible conflicts that nurses have to deal with, when undertaking or participating in research.
The major ethical issues in conducting research are: However, both the nature of nursing which focuses on caring, preventing harm and protecting dignity and the advocates role of nurses which calls for defending the rights of subjects, are sometimes incongruent with the ethics in research.
Ethical issues, conflicting values, and ambiguity in decision making, are recurrently emerging from literature review on nursing research.
Because of lack of clarity in ethical standards, nurses must develop an awareness of these issues and an effective framework to deal with problems involving human rights.
Keywords Research ethics, moral dilemmas in research, nature of nursing, nursing research, nursing advocacy Introduction Ethics is rooted in the ancient Greek philosophical inquiry of moral life. It refers to a system of principles which can critically change previous considerations about choices and actions.
Scientific research work, as all human activities, is governed by individual, community and social values. However, when nurses participate in research they have to cope with three value systems; society; nursing and science.
According to Clarke these values may conflict with the values of subjects, communities, and societies and create tensions and dilemmas in nursing.
Historical overview- Ethical codes Human experimentation has been conducted even before 18th century. Professional codes and laws were introduced since then in order to prevent scientific abuses of human lives.
This code focuses on voluntary informed consent, liberty of withdrawal from research, protection from physical and mental harm, or suffering and death. It also emphasises the risk- benefit balance. It was only in with the declaration of Helsinki that the need for non therapeutic research was initiated.
Since then there has been a significant development of professional codes in conduct and research. Beauchamp and Childress define autonomy as the ability for self determination in action according to a personal plan. It also seeks to prevent assaults on the integrity of the patient and protect personal liberty and veracity.
In this study, rural black men were chosen as subjects in a study of syphilis. Although a cure for syphilis was found after the start of the study, it was decided not to treat them and they had not been told that penicillin was effective to their disease. He must also provide a "Noncoersive Disclaimer" which states that participation is voluntary and no penalties are involved in refusal to participate.
The researcher must also take into account that persons with physical, cultural and emotional barriers may require a very simple language in order to understand him.
The Declaration of Helsinki provide some help as it declares that the interest of the subject must always prevail over the interests of society and science.
Another major ethical issue is obtaining an informed consent from groups with diminished autonomy which will be further discussed later. From what has been discussed, it becomes clear that disclosure, comprehension, competency and voluntariness are the four essential parts of a consent. Beauchamp and Childress, suggest that "the principle of beneficence includes the professional mandate to do effective and significant research so as to better serve and promote the welfare of our constituents".
Carr says that if the research findings prove that it was not beneficial as it s expected, this can raise immense ethical considerations especially for nurses.
According to Burns and Grove "discomfort and harm can be physiological, emotional, social and economic in nature". A researcher must consider all possible consequences of the research and balance the risks with proportionate benefit. The type, degree, and number of potential risks must be assessed as well as the patients value system which ranks various harms.
If the risks outweigh the benefits, the study should be revised. Treece and Treece say that debriefing refers to explaining the exact aim of the study and why the disclosure was not full.
Clarke addresses the ethical dilemma of the researcher when confidentiality must be broken because of the moral duty to protect society. On the other hand, the deontological theory which ignores the result implies that the moral duty is what really matters.
If a researcher, though, acts deontologically he may feel that he has not protected society. Another issue is that the researcher may have to report confidential information to courts which can also cause moral dilemmas. In that cases it can be argued that the moral duty and personal ethos can be stronger than legal requirements.
Ford and Reutter suggest using pseudonyms and distorting identifying details of interviews when transcribing the tapes used. Department of Health and Human Services DHHS may be useful to help ensure the privacy of research participants especially in studies in which participants and researchers may be exposed to compelled legal disclosure of research data.
The researchers must always bear in mind all psychological and social implications that a breach of confidentiality may have on subjects. In order to protect participants, they have to inform them on their rights, and use all possible coding systems that they regard appropriate in each case.Ethical issues in qualitative nursing research.
Holloway I, Wheeler S. This article is concerned with ethical issues that have to be considered when undertaking qualitative research. Some of the issues--such as informed consent, the dignity and privacy of the research subjects, voluntary participation and protection from harm--are the same as.
Research Papers on Nursing Ethics Issues Nursing Ethics Issues involve the ethical dilemmas faced by nursing professionals in everyday practice. This is a topic suggestion on Nursing Ethics Issues from Paper Masters. 94 First Quarter Journal of Nursing Scholarship Ethics in Qualitative Research Issues in Qualitative Research Although ethical review boards scrutinize most nursing.
Nursing Research has a long and distinguished record in the history of nursing science. Since its launch in , Nursing Research has been a “cooperative venture” of scientists, professional organizations, publisher, editorial staff, and readers to circulate scientific papers in nursing to improve care, alleviate suffering, and advance well-being.
Ethical Issues and The Elderly: Guidance for Eldercare Providers Mark R.
Ensign, jd, cpa Attorney and Counselor at Law. Ethical issues pervade our modern society. Results: The major ethical issues in conducting research are: a) Informed consent, b) tensions and dilemmas in nursing.3 In this paper, the most important ethical issues will be addressed.
After a short description of the nature of nursing, and the.