The duty of management was to select, train and help workers to perform their jobs properly. The responsibility, of workers was simply to accept the new methods and perform accordingly. The practical application of this approach was to break each job down into its smallest and simplest component pans or "motions". Each single motion in effect became a separate, specialized-job to be allocated -to a separate worker.
Areas of research include improving job performance, increasing job satisfaction, promoting innovation and encouraging leadership. In order to achieve the desired results, managers may adopt different tactics, including reorganizing groups, modifying compensation structures and changing the way performance is evaluated.
History While organizational behavior as a field of academic study was not fully recognized by the American Psychological Association until the s, its roots go back to the late s when the Hawthorne Electric Company set up a series of experiments designed to discern how changes in environment and design changed the productivity of their employees.
Their various studies, conducted between the years of andwere broad and meticulously measured over large periods of time. The studies included the effect of various types of breaks lots of small breaks, a few long ones, etc.
The most famous finding resulting from the Hawthorne Studies is what is now called the Hawthorne Effect, the change in behavior of a test subject when they know they are being observed. The idea of looking scientifically at behavior and productivity in the workplace with the goal of increasing the amount and quality of work an employee can get done, was coupled with the idea that workers were not interchangeable resources.
Workers were instead unique in terms of their psychology and potential fit with a company. These ideas were radically new when Hawthorne first began the studies, and they helped create a field of study and an entire professional field.
Organizational behavior has focused on various different topics of study. In part because of the Second World War, during the s, the field focused on logistics and management science.
During this period, the emphasis was on using mathematical modeling and statistical analysis to find the best answers for complex problems. In the s, theories of contingency and institutions, as well as organizational ecology, resource dependence, and bounded rationality came to the fore as the field focused more on quantitative research.
These findings and sets of theories helped organizations better understand how to improve business structure and decision making. Since the s, a good deal of the work being done in the field of organizational behavior has been on cultural components of organizations, including topics such as race, class, gender roles, and cultural relativism and their roles on group building and productivity.
These studies, a part of a shift in focus in the field towards qualitative research, and among other things, take into account the ways in which identity and background can inform decision making. Academic Focuses Academic Programs focusing on organizational behavior are usually found in business schools, and schools of social work and psychology.
They draw from the fields of anthropology, ethnography, and leadership studies and use quantitative, qualitative, and computer models as methods to explore and test ideas.
Depending on the program, one can study specific topics within organizational behavior, or broader fields. The topics covered by Micro OB include cognition, decision making, learning, motivation, negotiation, impressions, group process, stereotyping, and power and influence.
Macro OB covers organizations as social systems, dynamics of change, markets, relationships between organizations and their environments, as well as identity in organizational process, how social movements influence markets, and the power of social networks.
There is rarely one correct way to assess the right way to manage any of these things, but OB research can provide a set of guidelines and topics to follow. Theories around job satisfaction vary widely, but some argue that a satisfying job consists of a solid reward system, compelling work, good supervisors, and satisfactory working conditions.Organizational theory is the study of formal social organizations, such as businesses and bureaucracies, and their interrelationship with the environment in which they operate.
Discuss the history of the Organizational Behavior field with four contributing disciplines within the Organizational Behavior field, which consist of Psychology, Social Psychology Organizational Behavior.
Basically, organizational culture is the personality of the organization. from, eg, society Evolution. Plant Biology. Animal. After reviewing the historical evolution of organizational behavior, choose any two schools that are the most interesting and that have contributed to the knowledge of organizational behavior.
Describe how these schools influenced our understanding of individual behavior in the organization (company). History of Organizational Behavior.
Historical Perspective of Organisational Behaviour. In , Adam Smith advocated a new form of organisational structure based on the division of labour. Organizational behaviour is an applied behavioural science that is built on contributions from a number of behavioural disciplines such as psychology, sociology, social psychology, anthropology and economics.
Organizational Behavior (OB) is the study of human behavior in organizational settings, the interface between human behavior and the organization, and the organization itself.
Organizational Behavior researchers study the behavior of individuals primarily in their organizational roles.