The Refined Man is one who is financially and influentially masculine. He is capable of mixing both direct and subtle elements to accomplish his ends and has so much clout that he very rarely has to adapt to situations going out of his control because they never do. The Refined man, on the other hand, is defined by his relation to other men.
Renaissance Turret Clock, German, circa Spring driven Matthew Norman carriage clock with winding key Clockmakers developed their art in various ways. Building smaller clocks was a technical challenge, as was improving accuracy and reliability.
Clocks could be impressive showpieces to demonstrate skilled craftsmanship, or less expensive, mass-produced items for domestic use. Spring-driven clocks appeared during the 15th century,    although they are often erroneously credited to Nuremberg watchmaker Peter Henlein or Henle, or Hele around This resulted in the invention of the stackfreed and the fusee in the 15th century, and many other innovations, down to the invention of the modern going barrel in Early clock dials did not indicate minutes and seconds.
A clock with a dial indicating minutes was illustrated in a manuscript by Paulus Almanus,  and some 15th-century clocks in Germany indicated minutes and seconds. Some of the more basic table clocks have only one time-keeping hand, with the dial between the hour markers being divided into four equal parts making the clocks readable to the nearest 15 minutes.
Other clocks were exhibitions of craftsmanship and skill, incorporating astronomical indicators and musical movements.
The next development in accuracy occurred after with the invention of the pendulum clock. Galileo had the idea to use a swinging bob to regulate the motion of a time-telling device earlier in the 17th century. Christiaan Huygenshowever, is usually credited as the inventor.
He determined the mathematical formula that related pendulum length to time about The first model clock was built in in the Haguebut it was in England that the idea was taken up. It was also at this time that clock cases began to be made of wood and clock faces to utilize enamel as well as hand-painted ceramics.
Clement also introduced the pendulum suspension spring in The concentric minute hand was added to the clock by Daniel Quarea London clockmaker and others, and the second hand was first introduced. Hairspring[ edit ] InHuygens and Robert Hooke invented the spiral balance springor the hairspring, designed to control the oscillating speed of the balance wheel.
This crucial advance finally made accurate pocket watches possible. The great English clockmaker, Thomas Tompionwas one of the first to use this mechanism successfully in his pocket watchesand he adopted the minute hand which, after a variety of designs were trialled, eventually stabilised into the modern-day configuration.
During the 20th century there was a common misconception that Edward Barlow invented rack and snail striking. In fact, his invention was connected with a repeating mechanism employing the rack and snail. George Graham invented the deadbeat escapement for clocks in Marine chronometer[ edit ] A major stimulus to improving the accuracy and reliability of clocks was the importance of precise time-keeping for navigation.
The position of a ship at sea could be determined with reasonable accuracy if a navigator could refer to a clock that lost or gained less than about 10 seconds per day.
This clock could not contain a pendulum, which would be virtually useless on a rocking ship.
Inthe British government offered large financial rewards to the value of 20, pounds,  for anyone who could determine longitude accurately. John Harrisonwho dedicated his life to improving the accuracy of his clocks, later received considerable sums under the Longitude Act.
InHarrison built his first chronometer, which he steadily improved on over the next thirty years before submitting it for examination. InEli Terry and some other Connecticut clockmakers developed a way of mass-producing clocks by using interchangeable parts.
Electric clock InFrancis Ronalds published the first electric clock powered by dry pile batteries. Inhe first patented the electromagnetic pendulum. By the end of the nineteenth century, the advent of the dry cell battery made it feasible to use electric power in clocks.Fig Leaves Fig Leaves () is a comedy about a married couple.
Its best part is the opening, a twelve minute section that is rich in invention. Unfortunately, the rest of the film is fairly lifeless. This engaging text offers a brief, readable description of our common Western heritage heritage after Europe expanded into the rest of the world during the Renaissance, then through revolutions that have created today's technological global society.
Our Western % bronze (lost wax) sculptures gallery includes reproductions of some of the most important Medieval, Renaissance and Modern Western sculptures.
The civilization of the Moors created an intellectual climate that served as a beacon for Europe, when Europe stumbled in darkness.
The Islamic Scholars brought the works of Dynastic Egyptian and Classical Greek back to Europe by translating into Arabic the Greek texts of Aristotle, Plato, Ptolemy, Euclid, Galen, Hippocrates and others.
They analyzed and improved upon these works, drawing from. Calendar: Calendar, any system for dividing time over extended periods, such as days, months, or years, and arranging such divisions in a definite order.
A calendar is convenient for regulating civil life and religious observances and for historical and scientific purposes. The word is derived from the Latin. Etruscan civilization was a strong influence on other cultural developments throughout Antiquity, notably on early Celtic culture, such as the Hallstatt style and La Tene Style of Celtic art.
Sadly, from BCE onwards, the Etruscan city states were overcome by Rome and absorbed into the Roman Empire.